spring-of-mathematics:

The Beauty of Math in Science - Lissajous Curve

Lissajous curve, also known as Lissajous figure or Bowditch curve, is the graph of a system of parametric equations: x = A.sin(a.t + δ) and y = B.cos(bt)
The appearance of the figure is highly sensitive to the ratio a/b - Image 3 (3/2, 3/4 and 5/4). For a ratio of 1, the figure is an ellipse, with special cases including circles (A = B, δ = π/2 radians) and lines (δ = 0). Another simple Lissajous figure is the parabola (a/b = 2, δ = π/4). Other ratios produce more complicated curves, which are closed only if a/b is rational. The visual form of these curves is often suggestive of a three-dimensional knot, and indeed many kinds of knots, including those known as Lissajous knots, project to the plane as Lissajous figures.

Visually, the ratio a/b determines the number of “lobes” of the figure. For example, a ratio of 3/1 or 1/3 produces a figure with three major lobes (see image).  The ratio A/B determines the relative width-to-height ratio of the curve. For example, a ratio of 2/1 produces a figure that is twice as wide as it is high. Finally, the value of δ determines the apparent “rotation” angle of the figure, viewed as if it were actually a three-dimensional curve. For example, δ=0 produces x and y components that are exactly in phase, so the resulting figure appears as an apparent three-dimensional figure viewed from straight on (0°). In contrast, any non-zero δ produces a figure that appears to be rotated, either as a left/right or an up/down rotation (depending on the ratio a/b).

See more at source: Lissajous curve.

Images: 3D Lissajous curve - Lissajous curve - How to Make a Three-Pendulum Rotary Harmonograph by Karl Sims.

(via thescienceofreality)

Tags: math science

promptme-f-sifi said: In response to your recent post about what is a dinosaur and what isn't, how do you tell the difference? This is something that's always perplexed me.

jtotheizzoe:

The problem with a word like “dinosaur” is that it’s really not very precise or descriptive. Scientists use much more precise terms when classifying and describing the species and groups under the general term “dinosaur” but most people just point at anything reptilian that lived a long time ago and call it a dinosaur.

Technically, a dinosaur is any land-dwelling diapsid descendant of archosaurs. But those are strange and confusing words that don’t exactly roll off the tongue or mean anything obvious. 

Fear not! I’ve assembled some awesome videos from The Brain Scoop and SciShow to help you learn the difference. Check ‘em out below:

jtotheizzoe:

Mmmmmm… BACON SCIENCE

Bacon is perhaps nature’s most potent distillation of deliciousness. To those of us who fall in the category of “bacon lover”, there are few more innately pleasurable smells than sizzling bacon. 

The heat-induced chemical reactions catalyzed by the hot pan combine with compounds introduced by the process of smoking and curing bacon to launch a cornucopia of volatile flavor compounds into the air, and in turn your nose, stimulating salivary production and drawing you out of bed aloft on the wafting wonderfulness like a classic cartoon character.

So what ARE those delicious chemicals? The American Chemical Society’s Reactions channel has teamed up with CompoundChem to produce this look at the yummy chemistry of bacon.

Everything that’s delicious, we owe to chemistry.

My favorite bacon compound? When researching my next video (which also has a food-related theme, but you’ll have to wait until Monday to find out), I discovered guaiacol:

It’s a humble little molecule with a mouthful for a name, but it’s one of the most delicious chemicals on Earth. Here’s why it’s special…

Wood contains lots of lignin, a polymer that helps strengthen plant cell walls. When that lignin burns, like when bacon is smoked over applewood or coffee beans are roasted and toasted, some of its ring-like aromatic structures are converted into guaiacol (as well as hundreds of other compounds(, which is the main flavor compound behind the smoky taste in all sorts of foods… including bacon

popmech:

Forget all those broken boards and crumbled concrete slabs. No feat of martial arts is more impressive than Bruce Lee’s famous strike, the one-inch punch. From a single inch away, Lee was able to muster an explosive blow that could knock opponents clean off the ground. Lee mastered it, fans worldwide adored it, and Kill Bill "borrowed" it. But if you’re like us, you want to know how it works. While the biomechanics behind the powerful blow certainly aren’t trivial, the punch owes far more to brain structure than to raw strength. 


The Science of the One-Inch Punch

popmech:

Forget all those broken boards and crumbled concrete slabs. No feat of martial arts is more impressive than Bruce Lee’s famous strike, the one-inch punch. From a single inch away, Lee was able to muster an explosive blow that could knock opponents clean off the ground. Lee mastered it, fans worldwide adored it, and Kill Bill "borrowed" it. But if you’re like us, you want to know how it works. While the biomechanics behind the powerful blow certainly aren’t trivial, the punch owes far more to brain structure than to raw strength. 

The Science of the One-Inch Punch

pyranova said: Could you direct me to some blogs about human anatomy? I'm curious about the purpose of the cupid's bow in lips, but my searches are only coming up with cosmetics discussions or people critiquing if they love or hate them.

jtotheizzoe:

Hey followers, lhelp out pyranova and leave your favorite human anatomy blogs (not the NSFW kind, the science kind) in the reblogs/notes! The hive mind is always much smarter than me when it comes to matters like these :)

I’d rather talk about “Cupid’s bow”:

image

Named for its resemblance of a particular winged cherub’s amorous armament,  the pinched curve of the upper lip is sometimes referred to as “Cupid’s bow.” It’s formed by the meeting of the upper lip with that little dimple that nearly all of us have beneath our nose, known as the philtrum.

So what does the philtrum do, besides look cute?

Nothing. Not for humans anyway.

The philtrum, our lip dimple (limple?), is just a byproduct of how your face formed. Early in your development, just a few weeks after you were put in the uterine oven to cook, your face began to take shape. Cells and tissues from the outer and middle layers of your still-formless body migrated and folded like sheets of embryonic origami. Two of those early tissues, called the nasomedial prominence and maxillary prominence, respectively, folded up like a cellular cinch-sack, with the tiny dimple beneath your nose being the seam where all that dermal dough was pinched together to make your face pastry. Follow me? It happened like so: 

image

When this seam fails to fuse, it results in malformations like cleft lip.

The philtrum has a function in other animals, though. Let’s use my dog Oliver as an example, captured here in a particularly derpy moment this evening while we were playing fetch:

image

See that groove in the center of his nose? That’s his philtrum. Every time he licks his lips, a bit of saliva hangs there, drawn upwards from his mouth thanks to capillary action, keeping his big, dumb, adorable nose nice and wet. Animals like Oliver, who apparently depends highly on his sense of smell to navigate the world despite his uncanny ability not to be disgusted by his incredibly potent, but thankfully occasional, flatulence, rely on a wet nose to capture scent particles from the air. Dry nose? Less sniffs to sniff.

Since humans and higher primates rely mainly on eyesight to do our primate stuff, we are no longer under evolutionary selection to have a functioning, deeply grooved philtrum, so it’s faded over time into the dimple we know and (most of us) love today. Stephen Jay Gould might even have called it a spandrel.

Come to think of it, it may have an evolutionary function after all: It’s where you rest your finger when you say “Shh, Joe… be quiet. You’ve written enough.”

thatscienceguy:

My Whole Life is a Lie!!
The blood dripping from a rare steak is not actually blood at all! It’s a protein called Myoglobin, an iron and oxygen binding protein found in the muscles of mammals. The protein is there to allow operation of muscles when there is a lack of oxygen from the blood supply (for example when you hold your breath) which is why marine mammals have a very high concentration of the stuff.
It’s red color comes from the iron, and when exposed to enough heat (cooked well done) the iron is oxidised becoming brown instead! When the meat is preserved in nitrates the iron bonds with them, turning a bright pink color like with corned beef or ham.
And while we’re on the subject - Rare Vs Well done? Technically there’s no difference to nutritional value, each have virtually the same amounts of proteins and iron, plus when meat is cooked longer it becomes easier to digest. The only decent card played by “rare steak enthusiasts” is that there are more carcinogens in a well done steak - But ONLY if you’re using a gas or charcoal cooker, and in those two cases, no matter what you’re cooking the longer you leave it on there the more carcinogens there will be! So the only thing left is Taste/texture, and in those cases it is entirely opinionated, so don’t be one of those douches that says someone is wasting a ‘perfectly good steak’ by having it well done, if thats how they prefer it to taste then what the hell is wrong with it?!

thatscienceguy:

My Whole Life is a Lie!!

The blood dripping from a rare steak is not actually blood at all! It’s a protein called Myoglobin, an iron and oxygen binding protein found in the muscles of mammals. The protein is there to allow operation of muscles when there is a lack of oxygen from the blood supply (for example when you hold your breath) which is why marine mammals have a very high concentration of the stuff.

It’s red color comes from the iron, and when exposed to enough heat (cooked well done) the iron is oxidised becoming brown instead! When the meat is preserved in nitrates the iron bonds with them, turning a bright pink color like with corned beef or ham.

And while we’re on the subject - Rare Vs Well done? Technically there’s no difference to nutritional value, each have virtually the same amounts of proteins and iron, plus when meat is cooked longer it becomes easier to digest. The only decent card played by “rare steak enthusiasts” is that there are more carcinogens in a well done steak - But ONLY if you’re using a gas or charcoal cooker, and in those two cases, no matter what you’re cooking the longer you leave it on there the more carcinogens there will be! So the only thing left is Taste/texture, and in those cases it is entirely opinionated, so don’t be one of those douches that says someone is wasting a ‘perfectly good steak’ by having it well done, if thats how they prefer it to taste then what the hell is wrong with it?!

coolsciencegifs:

The Tubeless Siphon

Certain non-Newtonian fluids which are elastic display a large resistance to extensional flow. Such behaviour leads to fluid flow arrangements which are simply not possible using ordinary Newtonian fluids. These flows manifest themselves in a variety of ways. 

In the so-called ”tubeless” syphon, a fluid can be made to flow up through an unsupported liquid column above the free surface of the liquid. One way to achieve this is by slowly withdrawing and raising a syringe from a pool of the liquid below.

In the ”open channel” syphon, after initially commencing the flow of an elastic fluid from a beaker, the fluid will continue to flow up the side and over the lip of the beaker for some time, despite the level of its free surface having fallen considerably below the top of the beaker. In this way, the slightest spill will cause the beaker to partially empty in what is commonly referred to as a ”self-syphoning” effect.

Source

(via logicianmagician)

zerostatereflex:

RED HOT NICKEL ON VARIOUS SUBSTANCES

Sooooo,..this guy heats up a round sphere of nickel and applies it’s red hot awesomeness to different mediums. And ah,..I love it.

In burning delicious order of appearance:

Canyons

World’s Largest Gummy Bear

Dry Ice

Ballistic Gelatin

Soap

Paper

Sugar

Rubberband Ball

(Source: youtube.com, via logicianmagician)

Tags: science

giantpredatorymollusk said: If every cell in our bodies is replaced in seven years, how do tattoos stay on?

edwardspoonhands:

RIGHT!? Isn’t that FREAKING COOL! Your skin cells only last for a few weeks, and yet your tattoo lasts YOUR WHOLE LIFE! 

WELL! The outer layer of our skin is made of collagen, a flexible but durable protein. This is constantly sloughing off and being replaced from below as cells die leaving only their collagen-filled shells behind.

But when you get a tattoo, the needle punches past the outer layers of skin, doing quite a bit of damage. The result is that scar collagen forms around the dye that’s been placed in the dermis. Scar collagen, unlike skin collagen, doesn’t replace (which is why scars last forever.) The particles of ink are too large for white blood cells to surround them and carry them off to lymph nodes so they just sit there, surrounded by small amounts of scar collagen outside of your skin cells…pretty much forever. 

This is the key to tattoo removal, by the way. Lasers are used to break the ink into smaller bits, so your white blood cells can take care of them.

edgebug:

natti-karlo:

recovery-in-pink:

fitnesstreats:

Stand Like This for 2 Minutes Per Day
from http://jamesclear.com/body-language-how-to-be-confident

No, for real, though—this is a thing.  Not sure about the science behind it, but it makes me feel fancy and powerful regardless.  I highly recommend it.

There actually is legit science behind this. In fact, here’s an entire TED Talk about the science behind it, and the confidence-related chemicals that your brain produces JUST BY YOU STANDING LIKE THIS.

(Source: blog.urbanbohemian.com, via anxietycat)